A Week in Review: 9/21/14 – 9/27/14

September 26, 2014

AFOSR welcomes new director, Dr. Thomas F. Christian
The Air Force Research Laboratory announced the appointment of a new director at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in Arlington, Va.  Dr. Thomas F. Christian will join AFOSR as the 24th director of the agency, which boasts a 63-year history of continuously funding breakthrough basic research for the long-term benefit of the United States Air Force.
http://www.wpafb.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123426216

September 25, 2014

New Discovery Could Pave the Way for Spin-based Computing
Electricity and magnetism rule our digital world. Semiconductors process electrical information, while magnetic materials enable long-term data storage. A University of Pittsburgh research team has discovered a way to fuse these two distinct properties in a single material, paving the way for new ultrahigh density storage and computing architectures. This discovery was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Army Research Office. http://www.news.pitt.edu/news/new-discovery-could-pave-way-spin-based-computing

Penn Chemists Observe Key Reaction for Producing ‘Atmosphere’s Detergent’ Earth’s atmosphere is a complicated dance of molecules. The chemical output of plants, animals and human industry rise into the air and pair off in sequences of chemical reactions. Such processes help maintain the atmosphere’s chemical balance; for example, some break down pollutants emitted from the burning of fossil fuels. Understanding exactly how these reactions proceed is critical for predicting how the atmosphere will respond to environmental changes, but some of the steps of this dance are so quick that all of the molecules involved haven’t been measured in the wild. A University of Pennsylvania team has now observed one of these rapid atmospheric reactions in the lab.
http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/penn-chemists-observe-key-reaction-producing-atmosphere-s-detergent

September 23, 2014

Fluorescent Dyes Highlight Hard-to-Detect Damages in Composites
Current research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology is creating a process that uses fluorescence to detect both damage and water in composites, a first for composites. The first system utilizes Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), a method frequently used in molecular biology research to probe the interaction between proteins and other biopolymers. The second approach uses a mechanophore, a molecule that changes color in response to mechanical forces. http://compositesmanufacturingmagazine.com/2014/09/fluorescent-dyes-highlight-hard-detect-damages-composites/

September 22, 2014

Nature’s elegant and efficient vision systems can detect cancer
Mantis shrimp eyes are inspiring the design of new cameras that can detect a variety of cancers and visualise brain activity. University of Queensland research has found that the shrimp’s compound eyes are superbly tuned to detect polarised light, providing a streamlined framework for technology to mimic. The Australian Research Council, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development and the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research are funding the work. http://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2014/09/nature%E2%80%99s-elegant-and-efficient-vision-systems-can-detect-cancer

Engineers show light can play seesaw at the nanoscale
University of Minnesota electrical engineering researchers have developed a unique nanoscale device that for the first time demonstrates mechanical transportation of light. The discovery could have major implications for creating faster and more efficient optical devices for computation and communication. The team’s research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The device was fabricated in the cleanroom at the Minnesota Nano Center at the University of Minnesota. http://discover.umn.edu/news/science-technology/engineers-show-light-can-play-seesaw-nanoscale

A Week in Review: 11/3/13 – 11/9/13

November 7, 2013

Carnegie Mellon Researchers Use Inkblots To Improve Security of Online Passwords
GOTCHA Scheme Could Foil Growing Problem of Automated Brute Force Attacks
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/news/carnegie-mellon-researchers-use-inkblots-improve-security-online-passwords

Snap to Attention: Pitt, Air Force researchers identify polymers that react and move to light
Microvehicles and other devices that can change shape or move with no power source other than a beam of light may be possible through research led by the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering. The researchers are investigating polymers that “snap” when triggered by light, thereby converting light energy into mechanical work and potentially eliminating the need for traditional machine components such as switches and power sources.
http://www.engineering.pitt.edu/News.aspx?id=2147508987

November 8, 2013

Stanford researchers surprised to find how neural circuits zero in on the specific information needed for decisions
Using brain recordings and a computer model, an interdisciplinary team confounds the conventional wisdom about how the brain sorts out relevant versus irrelevant sensory inputs in making choices.
http://news.stanford.edu/news/2013/november/brain-cortex-decisions-110813.html

A Week in Review: 8/4/13 – 8/10/13

August 5, 2013

Air Force Supported Researchers Build All-Optical Switch and Transistor: The Path to All Optical Quantum Information Processing
The control of a single photon–the elementary quantum carrier of light and all forms of electromagnetic radiation–is seen as the Holy Grail of quantum computing.
http://www.wpafb.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123358534

The Molecular Scanner
Pitt invents the world’s smallest terahertz detector
http://www.news.pitt.edu/news/molecule-scanner

August 6, 2013

Altering organic molecules’ interaction with light
MIT Researchers discover a new platform that provides simple means to manipulate organic molecules’ emission, and may have important implications to organic light emitting devices and molecular biosensors
http://www.eurekaalert.org/pub_releases/2013-08/miot-aom080613.php

August 8, 2013

JILA researchers discover atomic clock can simulate quantum magnetism
Researchers at JILA have for the first time used an atomic clock as a quantum simulator, mimicking the behavior of a different, more complex quantum system
http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2013/08/08/jila-researchers-discover-atomic-clock-can-simulate-quantum-magnetism

 

A Week in Review: 7/28/13 – 8/3/13

July 29, 2013

Pitt team finds water ‘likeability’ plays a role in battery-charged objects
http://www.news.pitt.edu/news/water-batteries

Water clears path for nanoribbon development
Rice University researchers create sub-10-nanomater graphene nanoribbon patterns
http://news.rice.edu/2013/07/29/water-clears-path-for-nanoribbon-development-2/

July 30, 2013

Origami unfolds a new tissue engineering strategy
Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, has been around for more than a millennium, but associate professor of mechanical and industrial engineering Carol Livermore is now using it to create solutions in an emerging multidisciplinary field in medicine: tissue engineering.
http://www.northeastern.edu/news/2013/07/origami-unfolds-a-new-tissue-engineering-strategy/

August 2, 2013

New coating turns ordinary glass into superglass
A new transparent, bioinspired coating makes ordinary glass tough, self-cleaning, and incredibly slippery, a team from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) reported online in the July 31 edition of Nature Communication.
http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/120