Focus on the Future

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History has demonstrated that basic science is often unpredictable. When managed successfully it produces groundbreaking and game changing technologies for the Department of Defense, the U.S. Air Force and society as a whole. The United States depends on science, technology and innovative engineering to protect the American people and advance our national interests.

In this video, we focus on AFOSR’s investment in the six basic research areas that have the potential to create foundations for new disruptive technologies and solve formerly unsolvable problems for the Department of Defense. These areas are organized and managed in five scientific directorates: Dynamical Systems and Control (RTA), Quantum & Non-Equilibrium Processes (RTB), Information, Decision, and Complex Networks (RTC), Complex materials and Devices (RTD), and Energy, Power, and Propulsion (RTE). The research activities managed within each directorate are summarized on our website.

Dr. Russell, the director of AFOSR, highlights AFOSR’s focus to identify cutting edge scientific principles that will lead to a future Air Force unlike the one we have today.

The focus of AFOSR is on research areas that offer significant and comprehensive benefits to our national warfighting and peacekeeping capabilities. The ground breaking work of our scientists and engineers will yield significant results well into the future!

What disruptive technology do you envision in the future?

An Interview with Dr. John Luginsland: The Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics Program Manager

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We had a chance to sit down with Dr. Luginsland recently to learn about his program and the cool physics research he’s funding. As the manager for the Plasma & Electro- Energetic Physics Program, he oversees a diverse portfolio of AFOSR funded programs and finds the best of the best to fund.

Dr. John Luginsland, AFOSR Program Manager for Plasma & Electro Energetic Physics Position: AFOSR Program Manager
Program: Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics
Years with AFOSR:  2 years, 7 Months
Society Memberships: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Nuclear and Plasma Science Society, American Physical Society  (APS) – Division of Plasma Physics, Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Favorite Websites: Slashdot, MITs Technology Review, APS - Physics 
Presentations: Video of Dr. Luginsland’s Spring Review presentation.

What brought you to AFOSR?
I’ve been with AFOSR since December of 2009 but I like to say, “I’ve always worked for AFOSR.” Because actually my graduate work at the University of Michigan was funded by AFOSR. Then AFOSR funded my post doc through the National Research Council (NRC) post doc program at the Air Force Research Laboratory based at Kirtland Air Force Base. After that, I transitioned to a staff member of the Directed Energy Directorate of AFRL and worked in a lab that received basic research funding for a number of years from AFOSR. Later I went to industry for a number of years and in 2009 when my predecessor at AFOSR retired, the AFOSR Director at that time, Dr. Brendan Godfrey suggested I apply for the job and here I am.

How do you think AFOSR is different from other basic research organizations?
What I really like about AFOSR is that there’s actually a real tension between two missions. First and foremost, we’re a basic science organization so we find the best science we can and fund it. At the same time, we’re a mission research organization because we work for the Air Force so we have to simultaneously look for the very best science we can fund and also answer the mail, if you will, for the Air Force in terms of technology that will help the Air Force going forward. And I think that actually having to answer both of those questions simultaneously gives a degree of focus that the other funding agencies don’t have.

You’re the Plasma and Electro-Energetic Program Manager. What is plasma?
Plasma is the fourth state of matter: if you heat a solid you get a liquid, if you heat a liquid you get a gas, if you heat a gas you get plasma. Actually plasma is the most ubiquitous state of matter in the entire universe – 99% of the universe is in the plasma state, just not the part we live in here on earth.

How does electro-energetics fit in?
It takes energy to get into the plasma state, so often times we do that with electrical energy to go from the solid, to the liquid, to the gas, to the plasma.

My program is fundamentally looking at how do we make plasmas, how do we make them in energy efficient ways and then once you got something in the plasma state what can you uniquely do in that state that you can’t do in other areas.

Could you give us examples of how your program is benefiting the Air Force?
One major area that we fund is called directed energy technology. Plasma will let you access or make electromagnetic waves. So one big thing that we do is plasma physics that leads to radar sources and other sources of coherent radiation. Really high-powered electromagnetic sources actually create a plasma and then draws energy out of that plasma to make electromagnetic waves for radar – picking up airplanes, for doing electronic warfare, doing high-powered, long-range communications. All of that is based to some degree on plasma physics.

The other big exciting thing that we’re working on right now is trying to find good ways to decontaminate water. So as it turns out Fairfax County [VA] has two facilities that produce ozone and they do it through a chemical means. They do this at a city-block-sized facility and it actually is what purifies the water that we drink in Fairfax County. What we’re trying to do is actually shrink that block-sized facility into something that’s basically truck-sized and we’re using a plasma to do that. And this plasma, which is energetic in a way that chemicals aren’t, lets you make ozone much more efficiently and thereby use that ozone to clean up water and things like that. So you can imagine this is portable and could go into a forward operating base scenario, whereas the block-sized monstrosity can’t.

What direction do you see your program going in in the future?
The really exciting area that I think is starting to happen is that we’re starting to look at very small plasmas and what happens then is we start adding not just classical physics that we’re used to in the plasma physics community but start really pulling in quantum mechanics. That changes the physics associated with the plasmas and actually makes them quite a bit easier to make. So it takes less energy to make but we’re still getting all the benefits of plasma but it’s not requiring a block-sized thing to do it. We’re starting to do it in very small packages.

What is your process and timeline for choosing proposals?
So I always think it’s good for people to email me and have a quick email discussion sort of at the beginning of the calendar year after they look at the Broad Agency Announcement for details about what we’re looking to fund.

I look to get white papers in the late spring early summer say the May/June time period. You can submit them online.

White papers should be three to five pages long. I’d like there to be at least an estimate of the level of effort but for the most part what I’m looking for is what the unique science is you’re trying to do. What’s unique? What are you bringing to the portfolio that hasn’t been there before?

And then after that, I typically try and give feedback within a month.

I like to receive full proposals in the late summer – August/September – to try to get them in before the fiscal year rolls over in October.

I make funding decisions very early in the fiscal year – October/November.

Have a question for Dr. Luginsland? Please leave it in the comments below.

Bio-Inspired Flight — Who Is Air Force Basic Research

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Technological advances are constantly increasing human potential for developing very small things. For the US Air Force this means revolutionary designs in future air vehicles providing war fighters with tools that enhance situational awareness and the capacity to engage rapidly, precisely and with minimal collateral damage. When it comes to improving flight mechanics in these vehicles what better place to look for inspiration than bats, birds or bugs? These natural flyers have been perfecting their flight techniques for millions of years.

In this video, meet the researchers AFOSR is funding to develop designs for flight vehicles that will have revolutionary impacts on the future Air Force.

Basic Research at AFOSR: Ensuring Our National Security & Making Our Lives Easier

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By way of introduction, I am Dr. Tom Russell, the director of AFOSR.  We manage the basic research program for the United States Air Force.

What is Basic Research?
Basic research is the foundation of all scientific and engineering discovery and progress.  It is what leads to new inventions and concepts—many of which are revolutionary.  And the great thing about basic research is the mystery of it: while basic research investigators may start off trying to prove a particular theory, many times they end up going off in an entirely new direction, or their results are ultimately employed in a dramatically different way than they initially envisioned.  In my series of posts, I will discuss surprising examples of this process. But first I want to tell you why our office was established.

Where We Came From & Why Basic Research is Important
Dr. Vannevar Bush, the Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II, was the first to formally address the issue of post-war defense research. His July 1945 report, Science, the Endless Frontier, clearly made the case for a civilian-based, and civilian controlled, research program. The leadership of the soon to be independent United States Air Force was also committed to a civilian, or extramural program, but one under their control, and followed through by establishing its own research arm in February 1948. The U.S. Army and Navy established their research organizations as well.  The Air Force, recognizing the importance of basic research, established AFOSR in 1951, dedicated specifically to mining the basic research talent in U.S. universities and industry laboratories.  Overseas offices were subsequently established to identify promising foreign research accomplishments.

How Basic Research Impacts You
One of the primary investigators whom we fund recently characterized the long term successful results of what we do as “the stealth utility of innovation.”  An example to make the point: as a laser expert, he noted that it was military basic research that funded the invention of the laser, beginning in 1951.  And he pointed out, that if all the lasers in the world stop working, the world would come to a stop as well. Lasers are at the heart of our time keeping, our transportation network (the Global Positioning System), our energy system, and in entertainment, finances and electronics applications. This singular “stealth utility,” that regulates much of our state-of-the-art technology, is the result of defense-funded basic research and is taken for granted by everyone.  It exists because AFOSR and our sister service organizations made the research possible—not only for our mutual defense but a wide variety of beneficial applications for society in general.

In future posts we will discuss the reach and application of many of these “stealthy” discoveries that not only ensure our security, but work invisibly in the background of our society, making our lives a lot easier: from lasers to computers, from nanotechnology to aerospace, from bio-inspired devices to holographic displays, and what’s in store for the future as well.

What technology could you not live without?

Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking

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The recently published National Geographic special issue titled “100 Scientific Discoveries That Changed the World,” leads off with a research program that began in 1997 when we funded a Northwestern University researcher by the name of Chad Mirkin. AFOSR took a chance on a process called Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN), and what Dr. Mirkin himself noted, was “a far out idea and a paradigm shift in scanning probe microscopy,” but indeed, proved to be an idea that changed the world.

Highlighted in the Journal of Science, January 1999, DPN is a technology that builds nanoscale structures and patterns by drawing molecules directly onto a substrate. This process was achieved by employing an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the tip of which has the innate capability to precisely place items and draw lines at the nanoscale level. The AFM was basically an extremely small paint brush. Mirkin’s fundamental contribution was recognizing that it could be used to print structures on a surface through materials, rather than through an energy delivery process–the latter being the approach taken by all previous researchers.

DPN has led to the development of powerful new nanofabrication tools, ways of miniaturizing gene chips and pharmaceutical screening devices, methods for making and repairing photomasks used in the microelectronics industry, and high-throughput methods for discovering structures important in biology, medicine, and catalysis. Since 1997 Dr. Mirkin has authored over 480 manuscripts, holds over 440 patents and applications, and is the founder of four companies, which specialize in commercializing nanotechnology applications.

Professor Chad Mirkin recently spoke at two AFOSR events on the following topics A Chemist’s Approach to Nanofabrication: Towards a “Desktop Fab” and Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking.

A Chemist’s Approach to Nanofabrication: Towards a “Desktop Fab”

Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking

A Week in Review: 4/6/14 – 4/12/14

April 6, 2014

Self-Assembled Silver Superlattices Create Molecular Machines with Hydrogen-Bond “Hinges” and Moving “Gears”
A combined computational and experimental study of self-assembled silver-based structures known as superlattices has revealed an unusual and unexpected behavior: arrays of gear-like molecular-scale machines that rotate in unison when pressure is applied to them.
http://www.research.gatech.edu/news/self-assembled-silver-superlattices-create-molecular-machines-hydrogen-bond-%E2%80%9Chinges%E2%80%9D-and-moving

April 7, 2014

Computing’s invisible challenge
Northeastern University assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering Ningfang Mi recently learned she was one of 42 early-​​career researchers to win a Young Investigator Award from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. She plans to use award to figure out a better way to manage the vast amount of information sharing that takes place online—and push that mas­sive technical challenge even further into the background for end users.
http://www.northeastern.edu/news/2014/04/computings-invisible-challenge/

Rebar technique strengthens case for graphene
Carbon nanotubes are reinforcing bars that make two-dimensional graphene much easier to handles in a new hybrid material grown by researchers at Rice University. The Rice lab of chemist James Tour set nanotubes into graphene in a way that not only mimics how steel rebar is used in concrete but also preserves and even improves the electrical and mechanical qualities of both.
http://news.rice.edu/2014/04/07/rebar-technique-strengthens-case-for-graphene/

April 9, 2014

New ‘switch’ could power quantum computing
Using a laser to place individual rubidium atoms near the surface of a lattice of light, scientists at MIT and Harvard University have developed a new method for connecting particles — one that could help in the development of powerful quantum computing systems.
http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/new-switch-could-power-quantum-computing-0409

April 10, 2014

Fruit flies, fighter jets use similar nimble tactics when under attack
Researchers at the University of Washington used an array of high-speed video cameras operating at 7,500 frames a second to capture the wing and body motion of flies after they encountered a looming image of an approaching predator.
http://www.washington.edu/news/2014/04/10/fruit-flies-fighter-jets-use-similar-nimble-tactics-when-under-attack/

April 11, 2014

Air Force R&D group experiments with Google Glass
The BATMAN researchers are experimenting with many probable battlefield scenarios, including how Google Glass could be used by ground forces to help aircraft acquire targets or how it could work as a communications device between combat controllers and overhead aircraft.
http://www.airforcetimes.com/article/20140411/NEWS04/304110040/Air-Force-R-D-group-experiments-Google-Glass

A Week in Review: 3/30/14 – 4/5/14

April 1, 2014

Enhanced Autopilot System Could Help Prevent Accidents Like 2009 Air France 447 Crash
Thirty lines of computer code might have saved Air France flight 447, and 228 passengers and crew aboard, from plunging into the Atlantic Ocean on June 1, 2009, according to new research by Carlos Varela, an associate professor of computer science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Varela and his research group have developed a computer system that detects and corrects faulty airspeed readings, such as those that contributed to the AF447 crash. Their approach to detecting errors could be applicable in many systems that rely on sensor readings.
http://news.rpi.edu/content/2014/04/01/enhanced-autopilot-system-could-help-prevent-accidents

April 3, 2014

AFOSR welcomes new director, Dr. L. Wayne Brasure
Dr. L. Wayne Brasure, a member of the Senior Executive Service, is Director, AFOSR: The Basic Research Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, where he manages the entire basic research investment portfolio for the Air Force. Dr. Brasure leads a staff of 200 scientists, engineers and administrators in the U.S., and foreign technology offices in London, Tokyo and Santiago, Chile.
http://www.af.mil/AboutUs/Biographies/Display/tabid/225/Article/108591/dr-l-wayne-brasure.aspx

A Week in Review: 3/23/14 – 3/29/14

March 24, 2014

Air Force Office of Scientific Research selects materials researchers for Star Team Awards
Three research groups, under the leadership of Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate scientists were named Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Star Teams for 2014. The Star Team Award emphasizes and recognizes excellence in basic research performed within AFRL’s technology directorates. The designation is limited to no more than 10 percent of AFRL’s intramural basic research activities, and it acknowledges researchers who have demonstrated world class scientific or engineering achievement that is cutting edge, and “the best of the best.”
http://www.wpafb.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123404659

March 25, 2014

When hummingbirds fly unfriendly skies
The first measurements of how much a flying animal’s metabolism revs up when coping with turbulent air come from five Anna’s hummingbirds (Calypte anna) that Victor M. Ortega-Jimenez of the University of California, Berkeley and his colleagues tested.
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/when-hummingbirds-fly-unfriendly-skies

March 26, 2014

UTEP Professor Receives Grant from Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Assistant Professor of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering David Roberson, Ph.D., has been awarded a Young Investigator Research Program (YIP) grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Roberson the first UTEP faculty member or researcher to receive this particular grant.
http://engineering.utep.edu/announcement032614.htm

March 27, 2014

Cadet wins American Chemical Society award for polymer research
A senior cadet here won an award for the best undergraduate research poster from the American Chemical Society’s Division of Polymer Chemistry during the Society’s national meeting in Dallas March 16-20.
http://www.usafa.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123405134

March 29, 2014

The Artificial Leaf Is Here. Again.
General Electric is promoting a feel-good collection of videos these days. Called “Focus Forward,” it promises “short films, big ideas.” Each of these mini-docs triumphantly chronicles an innovative idea, like Daniel Nocera’s. This Harvard chemist has pioneered the artificial leaf, an invention that generates energy more or less the way a tree does. Light strikes a container of water and out bubbles hydrogen, an energy source.
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/30/technology/the-artificial-leaf-is-here-again.html?_r=1

A Week in Review: 3/9/14 – 3/15/14

March 10, 2014

Professor Receives Funding to Design Materials Inspired by Bone
Dr. Majid Minary, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at UT Dallas, has received funding to design high-performance materials inspired by bone.
http://www.utdallas.edu/news/2014/3/6-28931_Professor-Receives-Funding-to-Design-Materials-Ins_story-wide.html

March 14, 2014

Department of Defense Supports Kottos’ Symmetric Optics Research
The award will support Kottos’ study on “PT-Summetric Optical Materials” through April 2017. During this time, Kottos will develop a theoretical framework for Parity-Time (PT) Symmetric Optics using mainly polymetric platforms. Additionally, efforts will be made towards identifying other platforms/areas where PT-Symmetric ideas can be applied. Kottos will be coordinating his research with faculty at the University of Central Florida, Rice University, Georgia Institute of Technology and University of Utah.
http://newsletter.blogs.wesleyan.edu/2014/03/14/kottosmurigrant/

A Week in Review: 3/2/14 – 3/8/14

March 3, 2014

World Leader in LCD Research Selected for National Award
A much-decorated UCF optics researcher who specializes in liquid crystal displays and is among the university’s top patent generators is being recognized again by the nation’s premier optics society. Shin-Tson Wu, Pegasus professor of optics, has been selected to receive the Esther Hoffman Beller Medal from The Optical Society (OSA) for his broad and significant impact to academia and industry in photonics education.
http://today.ucf.edu/world-leader-lcd-research-selected-national-award/

March 5, 2014

Dealing with Loss
There’s exciting news from JILA’s ultracold molecule collaboration. The Jin, Ye, Holland, and Rey groups have come up with new theory (verified by experiment) that explains the suppression of chemical reactions between potassium-rubidium (KRb) molecules in the KRb quantum simulator.
https://jila.colorado.edu/news-highlights/dealing-loss

March 6, 2014

Crystals Ripple in Response to Light
Light can trigger coordinated, wavelike motions of atoms in atom-thin layers of crystal, scientists have shown. The waves, called phonon polaritons, are far shorter than light waves and can be “tuned” to particular frequencies and amplitudes by varying the number of layers of crystal, they report in the early online edition of Science March 7.
http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/crystals_ripple_in_response_to_light

Colored diamonds are a superconductor’s best friend
University of California, Berkeley, physicist Dmitry Budker and his colleagues at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and UCLA have now shown that these diamond sensors can measure the tiny magnetic fields in high-temperature superconductors, providing a new tool to probe these much ballyhooed but poorly understood materials.
http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2014/03/06/colored-diamonds-are-a-superconductors-best-friend/