Focus on the Future

Featured

History has demonstrated that basic science is often unpredictable. When managed successfully it produces groundbreaking and game changing technologies for the Department of Defense, the U.S. Air Force and society as a whole. The United States depends on science, technology and innovative engineering to protect the American people and advance our national interests.

In this video, we focus on AFOSR’s investment in the six basic research areas that have the potential to create foundations for new disruptive technologies and solve formerly unsolvable problems for the Department of Defense. These areas are organized and managed in five scientific directorates: Dynamical Systems and Control (RTA), Quantum & Non-Equilibrium Processes (RTB), Information, Decision, and Complex Networks (RTC), Complex materials and Devices (RTD), and Energy, Power, and Propulsion (RTE). The research activities managed within each directorate are summarized on our website.

Dr. Russell, the director of AFOSR, highlights AFOSR’s focus to identify cutting edge scientific principles that will lead to a future Air Force unlike the one we have today.

The focus of AFOSR is on research areas that offer significant and comprehensive benefits to our national warfighting and peacekeeping capabilities. The ground breaking work of our scientists and engineers will yield significant results well into the future!

What disruptive technology do you envision in the future?

An Interview with Dr. John Luginsland: The Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics Program Manager

Featured

We had a chance to sit down with Dr. Luginsland recently to learn about his program and the cool physics research he’s funding. As the manager for the Plasma & Electro- Energetic Physics Program, he oversees a diverse portfolio of AFOSR funded programs and finds the best of the best to fund.

Dr. John Luginsland, AFOSR Program Manager for Plasma & Electro Energetic Physics Position: AFOSR Program Manager
Program: Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics
Years with AFOSR:  2 years, 7 Months
Society Memberships: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Nuclear and Plasma Science Society, American Physical Society  (APS) – Division of Plasma Physics, Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Favorite Websites: Slashdot, MITs Technology Review, APS - Physics 
Presentations: Video of Dr. Luginsland’s Spring Review presentation.

What brought you to AFOSR?
I’ve been with AFOSR since December of 2009 but I like to say, “I’ve always worked for AFOSR.” Because actually my graduate work at the University of Michigan was funded by AFOSR. Then AFOSR funded my post doc through the National Research Council (NRC) post doc program at the Air Force Research Laboratory based at Kirtland Air Force Base. After that, I transitioned to a staff member of the Directed Energy Directorate of AFRL and worked in a lab that received basic research funding for a number of years from AFOSR. Later I went to industry for a number of years and in 2009 when my predecessor at AFOSR retired, the AFOSR Director at that time, Dr. Brendan Godfrey suggested I apply for the job and here I am.

How do you think AFOSR is different from other basic research organizations?
What I really like about AFOSR is that there’s actually a real tension between two missions. First and foremost, we’re a basic science organization so we find the best science we can and fund it. At the same time, we’re a mission research organization because we work for the Air Force so we have to simultaneously look for the very best science we can fund and also answer the mail, if you will, for the Air Force in terms of technology that will help the Air Force going forward. And I think that actually having to answer both of those questions simultaneously gives a degree of focus that the other funding agencies don’t have.

You’re the Plasma and Electro-Energetic Program Manager. What is plasma?
Plasma is the fourth state of matter: if you heat a solid you get a liquid, if you heat a liquid you get a gas, if you heat a gas you get plasma. Actually plasma is the most ubiquitous state of matter in the entire universe – 99% of the universe is in the plasma state, just not the part we live in here on earth.

How does electro-energetics fit in?
It takes energy to get into the plasma state, so often times we do that with electrical energy to go from the solid, to the liquid, to the gas, to the plasma.

My program is fundamentally looking at how do we make plasmas, how do we make them in energy efficient ways and then once you got something in the plasma state what can you uniquely do in that state that you can’t do in other areas.

Could you give us examples of how your program is benefiting the Air Force?
One major area that we fund is called directed energy technology. Plasma will let you access or make electromagnetic waves. So one big thing that we do is plasma physics that leads to radar sources and other sources of coherent radiation. Really high-powered electromagnetic sources actually create a plasma and then draws energy out of that plasma to make electromagnetic waves for radar – picking up airplanes, for doing electronic warfare, doing high-powered, long-range communications. All of that is based to some degree on plasma physics.

The other big exciting thing that we’re working on right now is trying to find good ways to decontaminate water. So as it turns out Fairfax County [VA] has two facilities that produce ozone and they do it through a chemical means. They do this at a city-block-sized facility and it actually is what purifies the water that we drink in Fairfax County. What we’re trying to do is actually shrink that block-sized facility into something that’s basically truck-sized and we’re using a plasma to do that. And this plasma, which is energetic in a way that chemicals aren’t, lets you make ozone much more efficiently and thereby use that ozone to clean up water and things like that. So you can imagine this is portable and could go into a forward operating base scenario, whereas the block-sized monstrosity can’t.

What direction do you see your program going in in the future?
The really exciting area that I think is starting to happen is that we’re starting to look at very small plasmas and what happens then is we start adding not just classical physics that we’re used to in the plasma physics community but start really pulling in quantum mechanics. That changes the physics associated with the plasmas and actually makes them quite a bit easier to make. So it takes less energy to make but we’re still getting all the benefits of plasma but it’s not requiring a block-sized thing to do it. We’re starting to do it in very small packages.

What is your process and timeline for choosing proposals?
So I always think it’s good for people to email me and have a quick email discussion sort of at the beginning of the calendar year after they look at the Broad Agency Announcement for details about what we’re looking to fund.

I look to get white papers in the late spring early summer say the May/June time period. You can submit them online.

White papers should be three to five pages long. I’d like there to be at least an estimate of the level of effort but for the most part what I’m looking for is what the unique science is you’re trying to do. What’s unique? What are you bringing to the portfolio that hasn’t been there before?

And then after that, I typically try and give feedback within a month.

I like to receive full proposals in the late summer – August/September – to try to get them in before the fiscal year rolls over in October.

I make funding decisions very early in the fiscal year – October/November.

Have a question for Dr. Luginsland? Please leave it in the comments below.

Bio-Inspired Flight — Who Is Air Force Basic Research

Featured

Technological advances are constantly increasing human potential for developing very small things. For the US Air Force this means revolutionary designs in future air vehicles providing war fighters with tools that enhance situational awareness and the capacity to engage rapidly, precisely and with minimal collateral damage. When it comes to improving flight mechanics in these vehicles what better place to look for inspiration than bats, birds or bugs? These natural flyers have been perfecting their flight techniques for millions of years.

In this video, meet the researchers AFOSR is funding to develop designs for flight vehicles that will have revolutionary impacts on the future Air Force.

Basic Research at AFOSR: Ensuring Our National Security & Making Our Lives Easier

Featured

By way of introduction, I am Dr. Tom Russell, the director of AFOSR.  We manage the basic research program for the United States Air Force.

What is Basic Research?
Basic research is the foundation of all scientific and engineering discovery and progress.  It is what leads to new inventions and concepts—many of which are revolutionary.  And the great thing about basic research is the mystery of it: while basic research investigators may start off trying to prove a particular theory, many times they end up going off in an entirely new direction, or their results are ultimately employed in a dramatically different way than they initially envisioned.  In my series of posts, I will discuss surprising examples of this process. But first I want to tell you why our office was established.

Where We Came From & Why Basic Research is Important
Dr. Vannevar Bush, the Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II, was the first to formally address the issue of post-war defense research. His July 1945 report, Science, the Endless Frontier, clearly made the case for a civilian-based, and civilian controlled, research program. The leadership of the soon to be independent United States Air Force was also committed to a civilian, or extramural program, but one under their control, and followed through by establishing its own research arm in February 1948. The U.S. Army and Navy established their research organizations as well.  The Air Force, recognizing the importance of basic research, established AFOSR in 1951, dedicated specifically to mining the basic research talent in U.S. universities and industry laboratories.  Overseas offices were subsequently established to identify promising foreign research accomplishments.

How Basic Research Impacts You
One of the primary investigators whom we fund recently characterized the long term successful results of what we do as “the stealth utility of innovation.”  An example to make the point: as a laser expert, he noted that it was military basic research that funded the invention of the laser, beginning in 1951.  And he pointed out, that if all the lasers in the world stop working, the world would come to a stop as well. Lasers are at the heart of our time keeping, our transportation network (the Global Positioning System), our energy system, and in entertainment, finances and electronics applications. This singular “stealth utility,” that regulates much of our state-of-the-art technology, is the result of defense-funded basic research and is taken for granted by everyone.  It exists because AFOSR and our sister service organizations made the research possible—not only for our mutual defense but a wide variety of beneficial applications for society in general.

In future posts we will discuss the reach and application of many of these “stealthy” discoveries that not only ensure our security, but work invisibly in the background of our society, making our lives a lot easier: from lasers to computers, from nanotechnology to aerospace, from bio-inspired devices to holographic displays, and what’s in store for the future as well.

What technology could you not live without?

Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking

Featured

The recently published National Geographic special issue titled “100 Scientific Discoveries That Changed the World,” leads off with a research program that began in 1997 when we funded a Northwestern University researcher by the name of Chad Mirkin. AFOSR took a chance on a process called Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN), and what Dr. Mirkin himself noted, was “a far out idea and a paradigm shift in scanning probe microscopy,” but indeed, proved to be an idea that changed the world.

Highlighted in the Journal of Science, January 1999, DPN is a technology that builds nanoscale structures and patterns by drawing molecules directly onto a substrate. This process was achieved by employing an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the tip of which has the innate capability to precisely place items and draw lines at the nanoscale level. The AFM was basically an extremely small paint brush. Mirkin’s fundamental contribution was recognizing that it could be used to print structures on a surface through materials, rather than through an energy delivery process–the latter being the approach taken by all previous researchers.

DPN has led to the development of powerful new nanofabrication tools, ways of miniaturizing gene chips and pharmaceutical screening devices, methods for making and repairing photomasks used in the microelectronics industry, and high-throughput methods for discovering structures important in biology, medicine, and catalysis. Since 1997 Dr. Mirkin has authored over 480 manuscripts, holds over 440 patents and applications, and is the founder of four companies, which specialize in commercializing nanotechnology applications.

Professor Chad Mirkin recently spoke at two AFOSR events on the following topics A Chemist’s Approach to Nanofabrication: Towards a “Desktop Fab” and Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking.

A Chemist’s Approach to Nanofabrication: Towards a “Desktop Fab”

Nanotechnology: Moving Beyond Small Thinking

Week in Review: 4/12/15 – 4/18/15

April 16, 2015

UT Austin Engineer Wins $1 Million National Science Foundation Award
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded Andrea Alù, an associate professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, the prestigious 2015 Waterman Award, which comes with $1 million of research funding. An associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and a former recipient of the NSF CAREER Award, Alù is renowned for groundbreaking discoveries and technological innovations in the defense and communications sectors. AFOSR POs: Dr. Arje Nachman and Dr. Ali Sayir
http://news.utexas.edu/2015/04/16/ut-austin-engineer-wins-1-million-nsf-award

April 15, 2015

Cobalt film a clean-fuel find
A cobalt-based thin film serves double duty as a new catalyst that produces both hydrogen and oxygen from water to feed fuel cells, according to scientists at Rice University. The inexpensive, highly porous material invented by the Rice lab of chemist James Tour may have advantages as a catalyst for the production of hydrogen via water electrolysis. A single film far thinner than a hair can be used as both the anode and cathode in an electrolysis device. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and its Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative supported the research.
AFOSR POs: Dr. Joycelyn Harrison & Dr. Charles Lee http://news.rice.edu/2015/04/15/cobalt-film-a-clean-fuel-find/

Week in Review: 4/5/15 – 4/11/15

April 11, 2015

Hussey Honored With SEC Faculty Achievement Award
Charles Hussey, professor and chair of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Mississippi, is a 2015 recipient of the Southeastern Conference’s Faculty Achievement Award.
http://hottytoddy.com/2015/04/11/hussey-honored-with-sec-faculty-achievement-award/

April 10, 2015

Transistor Laser Research Gets $657k Grant
Milton Feng, a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois, has recently received a $657,000 grant from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The aim is to enhance the modulation speed performance of the transistor laser (a novel 3-terminal device that he and ECE colleague Nick Holonyak Jr. invented in 2004) to terahertz speeds. http://www.compoundsemiconductor.net/article/96808-transistor-laser-research-gets-657k-grant.html

April 8, 2015

CMU Chemists Create Tiny Gold Nanoparticles That Reflect Nature’s Patterns-Mellon College of Science
Our world is full of patterns, from the twist of a DNA molecule to the spiral of the Milky Way. New research from Carnegie Mellon chemists has revealed that tiny, synthetic gold nanoparticles exhibit some of nature’s most intricate patterns. AFOSR PO: Dr. Michael Berman
http://www.cmu.edu/mcs/news/pressreleases/2015/0408-gold-nanoparticle-patterns.html

April 6, 2015

Researchers create first metal-free catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries Researchers from Case Western Reserve University and the University of North Texas have made what they believe is the first metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst that performs as well or better than most metal and metal oxide electrodes in zinc-air batteries. AFOSR PO: Dr. Joycelyn Harrison http://blog.case.edu/think/2015/04/06/researchers_create_first_metalfree_catalyst_for_rechargeable_zincair_batteries

Week in Review: 3/29/15 – 4/4/15

April 2, 2015

Ultrasonic hammer sets off tiny explosions
Giving new meaning to the term “sonic boom,” University of Illinois chemists have used sound to trigger microscopic explosions. Using an “ultrasonic hammer,” the researchers triggered tiny but intensely hot explosions in volatile materials, giving insight into how explosives work and how to control them. Led by chemistry professors Ken Suslick and Dana Dlott, the researchers published their findings in the journal Nature Communications. http://news.illinois.edu/news/15/0402ultrasonic_hammer_KenSuslick.html

Week in Review: 3/22/15 – 3/28/15

March 27, 2015

Stanford Engineers Working to Pack More Laser Beams, and Data, into Fiber Optic Strands
“In theory one fiber could transport perhaps as many as a hundred different beams, each carrying its own data stream of light flashing on and off,” said David Miller, the W. M. Keck Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford. “Our challenge is creating the optics to gather those beams, flow them through the fiber together and then separate out each data stream at the other end.”
AFOSR PO: Dr. Gernot Pomrenke
https://engineering.stanford.edu/news/stanford-engineers-working-pack-more-laser-beams-data-fiber-optic-strands
Water makes wires even more nano
Water is the key component in a Rice University process to reliably create patterns of metallic and semiconducting wires less than 10 nanometers wide. The technique by the Rice lab of chemist James Tour builds upon its discovery that the meniscus – the curvy surface of water at its edge – can be an effective mask to make nanowires. The Rice team of Tour and graduate students Vera Abramova and Alexander Slesarev have now made nanowires between 6 and 16 nanometers wide from silicon, silicon dioxide, gold, chromium, tungsten, titanium, titanium dioxide and aluminum. They have also made crossbar structures of conducting nanowires from one or more of the materials.
AFOSR POs: Dr. Joycelyn Harrison and Dr. Charles Lee http://news.rice.edu/2015/04/06/water-makes-wires-even-more-nano/

March 23, 2015

Landmark study proves that magnets can control heat and sound
Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. An experiment proved that the phonon—the elementary particle that carries heat and sound—has magnetic properties. Here Joseph Heremans, Ohio Eminent Scholar in Nanotechnology, holds an artist’s rendering of a phonon heating solid material.
AFOSR PO: Dr. Harold Weinstock
http://news.osu.edu/news/2015/03/23/heatmag/

UW scientists build a nanolaser using a single atomic sheet
University of Washington scientists have built a new nanometer-sized laser — using the thinnest semiconductor available today — that is energy efficient, easy to build and compatible with existing electronics.
AFOSR PO: Dr. Gernot Pomrenke
http://www.washington.edu/news/2015/03/23/uw-scientists-build-a-nanolaser-using-a-single-atomic-sheet/

Squid-inspired ‘invisibility stickers’ could help soldiers evade detection in the dark
Squid are the ultimate camouflage artists, blending almost flawlessly with their backgrounds so that unsuspecting prey can’t detect them. Using a protein that’s key to this process, scientists have designed “invisibility stickers” that could one day help soldiers disguise themselves, even when sought by enemies with tough-to-fool infrared cameras.
AFOSR PO: Dr. Kathleen Kaplan
http://phys.org/news/2015-03-squid-inspired-invisibility-stickers-soldiers-evade.html

Week in Review: 3/15/15 – 3/21/15

March 18, 2015

Rice fine-tunes quantum dots from coal
Graphene quantum dots made from coal, introduced in 2013 by the Rice University lab of chemist James Tour, can be engineered for specific semiconducting properties in either of two single-step processes. In a new study this week in the American Chemical Society journal Applied Materials & Interfaces, Tour and colleagues demonstrated fine control over the graphene oxide dots’ size-dependent band gap, the property that makes them semiconductors. Quantum dots are semiconducting materials that are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties that only appear at the nanoscale. Tour’s group found they could produce quantum dots with specific semiconducting properties by sorting them through ultrafiltration, a method commonly used in municipal and industrial water filtration and in food production.
AFOSR POs: Dr. Joycelyn Harrison and Dr. Charles Lee http://news.rice.edu/2015/03/18/rice-fine-tunes-quantum-dots-from-coal-2/

Rutgers Chemistry Research Holds Great Promise for Advancing Sustainable Energy
New research published by Rutgers University chemists has documented significant progress confronting one of the main challenges inhibiting widespread utilization of sustainable power: Creating a cost-effective process to store energy so it can be used later.
AFOSR PO: Dr. Patrick Bradshaw
http://chem.rutgers.edu/rutgers-chemistry-research-holds-great-promise-for-advancing-sustainable-energy

New Air Force center at UW learns from animals for better flight
The Air Force Center of Excellence on Nature-Inspired Flight Technologies and Ideas is one of six nationwide centers funded by the U.S. Air Force and the only to focus on how elements in nature can help solve challenging engineering and technological problems related to building small, remotely operated aircraft. AFOSR PO: Dr. Patrick Bradshaw
https://www.washington.edu/news/2015/03/18/new-air-force-center-at-uw-learns-from-animals-for-better-flight/

New research suggests insect wings might serve gyroscopic function University of Washington research suggests that insects’ wings may also serve a gyroscopic function — a discovery that sheds new insight on natural flight and could help with developing new sensory systems in engineering. AFOSR PO: Dr. Patrick Bradshaw http://www.washington.edu/news/2015/03/18/new-research-suggests-insect-wings-might-serve-gyroscopic-function/

March 17, 2015

Data Structures Influence Speed of Quantum Search in Unexpected Ways
“We turned an intuition on its head,” Wong said. “Searching with a quantum particle, we showed the opposite, giving an example where searching in a city with low connectivity yields fast search, and an example where searching in a city with high connectivity yields slow search. Thus the quantum world is much richer than our classical intuitions might lead us to believe.”
AFOSR POs: DR. David Stargel and Dr. Doug Smith http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/data_structures_influence_speed_of_quantum_search_in_unexpected_ways

March 16, 2015

Croll to receive Air Force Young Investigator Award
The NDSU research team is examining how randomly crumpled and purposefully folded polymeric materials eventually could be used as lightweight structural components in aerospace applications. The secrets of these bends and folds could provide information that leads to lightweight and strong components to make aircraft and spacecraft more efficient.
AFOSR PO: Dr. Joycelyn Harrison
http://www.ndsu.edu/research/news/detail/17533/